M.Sc. course on Genetics

Contact Year of Establishment About the course Syllabus
Faculty Members Students' Performance Ongoing Projects & Research Facilities & Achievement

Contact

Department of Gentics
University of Calcutta
University College of Science
35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata - 700 019
Phone: 91-033-2461 5445/4959, Ext. 229 (Off.)
Email: hodgenetics@gmail.com

Year of Establishment
2002-2003

The M.Sc. Course in Genetics had started w.e.f academic session 2002-2003 at the Centre of Advanced Study for Cell and Chromosome Research, Department of Botany, Calcutta University which acted as a NODAL CENTRE for Post Graduate teaching in Genetics under the University of Calcutta.

The Centre has been receiving assistance from UGC under Special assistance programme since 1972 and under CAS since 1980. The Centre is internationally known for establishment of a new concept of speciation in plants, development of new techniques for the study of chemical and physical nature of chromosomes and dynamic role of chromosomes in differentiation, reproduction and evolution. The Centre is presently under Phase V of UGC Assistance at the level of CAS.

Cell and Chromosome Research and major facilities developed with UGC assistance include well equipped laboratories for research and teaching in the field of Molecular Genetics, Cell biology, Plant biotechnology and allied subjects. The Centre has excellent laboratory facilities for continuing research as well as for becoming a catalyst for good teaching and offering innovative and integrated new courses at the post graduate level.

The M.Sc. Course in Genetics was elevated to the level of Department by the University of Calcutta in 2008

About the course

The M.Sc Course in Genetics was introduced in the academic session 2002-2003 to impart M.Sc in Genetics degree to students holding B.Sc (Hons) degree in Physical Science, Life Science, Agriculture and to give training in both theoretical and practical aspects of Classical and Molecular Genetics. The semester system was introduced from the academic session 2005 with a total credit of 72(seventy two), evenly distributed over the four semesters .The courses are grouped as Core, Supportive and Optional. The number of student intake at present is fourteen; thirteen from Calcutta University including SC/ST category as per UGC norms and one from outside Calcutta University.

After the completion of the second semester examination the students participate in summer projects in different Institutes/Universities of repute such as Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore; Indian Institute of Technology-BREF Biotek, Kharagpur; IISER-Pune/ Kolkata; TIFR- Mumbai; AIIMS, J.N.U. New Delhi; CCMB, Hyderabad; IICB, Kolkata; NICED, Kolkata; CNCI, Kolkata; Bose Institute, Kolkata. The students passed during the last six batches are well placed in different National and International Universities/Institutes.

Programme

Cut-off Mark at entry

Intake Capacity

M.Sc.

A candidate who has passed 3 years B.Sc. Examination with Hons. In Agriculture, Anthropology, Botany, Zoology, Chemistry, Microbiology, Physics or Physiology, with Chemistry as one of the Pass subject, having minimum marks of 55% in Hons. Or MBBS, and having secured at least 60% marks in Biology, Mathematics, Chemistry and physics in Higher Secondary Examination with at least 55% marks in each of these papers will be eligible to sit in for admission test.

14

Semester-wise distribution of courses

 

Courses

No. Of courses

Marks

Credits

1st Semester

Core courses

4

175

12

Supportive courses

2

50

2

2nd Semester

Core courses

4

225

15

Supportive courses

2

75

3

3rd Semester

 

Core courses

3

150

11

Supportive courses

2

100

5

Summer Project

1

25

4

4th Semester

 

 

Core courses

3

125

11

Review paper in Genetics

 

25

3

Seminar on Summer Project

 

25

3

Grand Viva

 

25

3

TOTAL

1000

72

Orientation of courses in different semesters

1st Semester

Marks           

Credits

CORE COURSES

Theoretical

Practical

12 credits

Gen C11: Biomolecules

25

--

2+0

Gen C12: Cell Biology

25

25

2+1

Gen C13: Molecular Biology

25

25

2+1

Gen C14: Principles of Genetics

50

--

4+0

SUPPORTIVE COURSES

 

 

2 Credits

Gen S11: Enzymes and Reaction Kinetics

25

--

1+0

Gen S12: Developmental Biology

25

--

1+0

2nd Semester

CORE COURSES

 

 

15 credits

Gen C21: Cytogenetics

50

25

3+2

Gen C22:  Biostatistics

25

--

2+0

Gen C23: Microbial Genetics

50

25

3+2

Gen C24: Developmental Genetics

50

--

3+0

SUPPORTIVE COURSES

 

 

3 Credits

Gen S21: Metabolism

25

--

1+0

Gen S22: Immunology

25

25

1+1

3rd Semester

CORE COURSES

 

 

17 credits

Gen C31: Regulation of Gene Expression

25

--

2+0

Gen C32: Human Genetics and Genomics

50

25

4+2

Gen C33: Proteomics

25

25

2+1

Gen C34: Summer Project

 

25

0+4

SUPPORTIVE COURSES

 

 

5 Credits

Gen S31: Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity

50

25

2+2

Gen S32: Animal and Plant Biotechnology

25

--

1+0

4th Semester

CORE COURSES

 

 

11 credits

Gen C41:  Plant Genetics and Plant Breeding

50

25

3+2

Gen C42:  Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics

25

--

3+0

Gen C43:  Bioinformatics

25

--

3+0

SUPPORTIVE COURSES

 

 

9Credits

Gen S41: Review Paper

 

25

0+3

Gen S42: Seminar

 

25

0+3

Gen S43: Grand Viva

 

25

0+3

TOTAL

1000

72

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Detailed syllabus for two year M.Sc. Course in Genetics

First Semester

Gen C11: Biomolecules and Macromolecules :
Water, Buffers, concept of Chemical bonding, Forces involved in biological molecules, Chemistry of Carbohydrates - mono, di- and polysaccharides; Chemistry of amino acids and peptides, chemical synthesis of peptides; lipids-classification; structure and function, their role in biological membranes. Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure of proteins; µ-helix, b-sheet and collagen structure, bonds stabilizing protein structure; helix-coil transition, amino acid sequences; allosteric interactions, cooperative ligand binding in Oxygen transporters, Hill equation, Separation techniques for proteins, Watson-Crick model of DNA; sugar puckerings , base stacking; B-; A- and Z- DNA ; denaturation kinetics of DNA , Cot curves; structure of tRNA and ribosomes, Supercoiling of DNA and its influence on structure, Nucleosomal structure.

Gen C12: Cell Biology :
The evolution of cell; from prokaryotes to eukaryotes; from single cells to multicultural organisms; looking at the structure of the cell; Isolating cells and growing them; fractionation of cell. Internal organization of the cell: Membrane structure; Membrane constituents- phospholipids, glycolipids, cholesterol, membrane proteins; receptors and phospholipases; Phospholipid bilayer- structure, asymmetry, fluid mozaic model of random diffusion of membrane components, domains in membrane- natural and artificial membranes passive movements of solutes , ion distribution; mediated permeation; ionophores; membrane transport of small molecules and the ionic basis of membrane excitability; principles of membrane transport; carrier proteins and active membrane transport; ion channels and electrical properties of membranes; intracellular compartments and protein sorting; compartmentalization of cells; transport of proteins into mitochondria and chloroplasts; peroxisomes; the endoplasmic reticulum. Methods of studying the cell surface, re-constitutional studies; fluorescence assisted methods e.g.flow cytometry; membrane active peptides; membrane cytoskeleton; membrane anchorage of proteins Vescicular traffic in the secretary and endocytic pathway; transport from the ER through the Golgi apparatus; transport from the Trans Golgi Network; Transport from Plasma membrane via Endosomes; endocytosis;transcytosis; transport from the Trans Golgi Network to the cell surface; Exocytosis; the molecular mechanisms of vescicular transport and maintenance of compartmental diversity. Cell signaling; signaling via G-protein-linked cell surface receptors; signaling via Enzyme-linked cell surface. Cytoskeleton: The nature of cytoskeleton; Intermediate Filaments; Microtubules; Cilia and Centrioles; Actin filaments; actin binding proteins; muscle. Cell division cycle- general strategies of the cell cycle; yeast and molecular genetics of cell- cycle control; cell-division control in multicellular animals .The mechanism of cell division ; M phase; mitosis; cytokinesis ; cell junctions , cell-cell adhesion, the extracellular matrix; extracellular matrix receptors- the integrins; the Plant Cell Wall.

Practicals
Sub-cellular fractionations of tissue by centrifugation; Use of Bright field, Phase Contrast & Fluorescence Microscopy to study cell inclusions; Estimation of DNA, protein and RNA by various methods. Enzyme kinetics, effects of pH and temperature on enzyme activity, use of inhibitors for active site determination, Michaelis-Menten equation: determination KM and Vmax.

Gen C13: Molecular Biology
DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: General features and enzymology; detailed mechanisms of initiation, elongation and termination; experiments underlying each step and role of individual factors; telomerases: mechanism of replication, maintenance of integrity and role in cancer; DNA damage and repair: factors affecting DNA bases, identification and molecular characterization of repair enzymes in photoreactivation, excision, recombination, and SOS pathways; recombination and transposition: models for homologous recombination- the Holliday, Meselson-Radding and RecBCD pathways and their experimental supports; meiotic recombination- mechanism, the double-stranded DNA breaks; site-specific recombination and transposition.Transcription: RNA polymerase subunits, different sigma factors- related to stress, viral infections etc., initiation, elongation and termination (rho-dependent and independent) of RNA synthesis; antitermination, attenuation and other influences of translational apparatus on the process of transcription; eukaryotic promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA polymerases; various protein motifs involved in DNA-protein interactions during transcription; translation: in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their regulation, processing of mRNA for translation (e.g. 5’ capping and splicing) and involvement of different translational factors at different stages of the process.

Practicals
Isolation of Genomic DNA from bacteria, plant and tissues; isolation of RNA; Agarose Gel Electrophoresis; isolation of protein from different sources, Analysis of proteins by SDS-PAGE, Native PAGE.

Gen C14: Principles of Genetics
Basic Mechanisms of inheritance: genetics in biology, -Role of genetics in Agriculture, Industry and medicine. Life cycles of some genetically important organisms such as viruses, bacteria, Neurospora, Drosophila, Maize, Arabidopsis and Homo sapiens. Mendelian Genetics - Mendel's Laws of Inheritance, with specific examples from plants, Drosophila and human. Chromosome theory of inheritance; Mendelian Genetics in Eukaryotic life cycles. Extensions to Mendelism- dominance, co-dominance and incomplete dominance; pleiotropism; lethals and sub-lethals; genotypic interactions-epistasis, mechanism of epistasis; multiple alleles-ABO blood groups in humans, pseudoalleles- Rh blood group incompatibility; complex loci; complementation test in genetic analysis; Mitosis and Meiosis in plants, animal and human; Chromosomal theory of heredity; Cell cycle and cell division: Chromosome segregation-mitosis, mitotic apparatus, distribution of microtubule organizing centers, cytokinesis, genes affecting mitosis. Chromosome segregation-meiosis; formation and function of synaptonemal complex, crossing over and chiasmata formation; genes affecting meiosis. Genes and environment; norm of reaction, phenocopies. Linkage and mapping in eukaryotes; Linkage, discovery, cytological basis of crossing over; coupling versus repulsion of syntenic alleles, the chi square test for linkage, recombination frequency and map construction, genetic mapping in a three point test cross, examples of linkage maps, coincidence and interference; haploid mapping-tetrad analysis in fungi; unordered (yeast)and ordered (Neurospora) spores; Specialized eukaryotic chromosome mapping techniques. Analysis of single meiosis, advantages of using Sex determination; sex linkage and Pedigree analysis: Concept of sex determination and patterns in plants and animals; sex chromosomes; sex determination in flowering plants; dosage compensation; Sex -linked, sex-limited
and sex-influenced characters. History and development of human genetics; method of genetic study in man-human Pedigree Analysis. entrance and expressivity; family tree; dominant inheritance; recessive inheritance and sex linked inheritance in human. Extra-nuclear inheritance: determining non-Mendelian Inheritance; maternal effects; cytoplasmic inheritance; mitochondria;chloroplasts;infective particles; prokaryotic plasmids; Imprinting.

Gen S11: Enzymes and Reaction Kinetics
Definition of enzymes; active site, substrate, coenzyme, cofactor and different kinds of enzyme inhibitors; enzyme kinetics, two substrate kinetics, three substrate kinetics, deviation from linear kinetics; ligand binding studies; rapid kinetics; association and dissociation constants; use of isotopes in enzyme kinetics mechanism analysis; effect of pH, temperature and isotopically labeled substrates on enzyme activity; allosteric model of enzyme regulation; substrate induced conformational change in enzyme.

Gen S12: Developmental Biology
Basic concepts of development: Potency, commitment, specification, induction, competence, determination and differentiation; morphogenetic gradients; cell fate and cell lineages; stem cells; genomic equivalence and the cytoplasmic determinants; imprinting; mutants and transgenics in analysis of development.

Gametogenesis, fertilization and early development:
Animals: Production of gametes, cell surface molecules in sperm-egg recognition in animals; zygote formation, cleavage, blastula formation, embryonic fields, gastrulation and formation of germ layers in animals.
Plants: embryo sac development and double fertilization in plants embryogenesis, establishment of symmetry in plants; seed formation and germination.
Morphogenesis and organogenesis in animals: Cell aggregation and differentiation in Dictyostelium; axes and pattern formation in Drosophila, amphibia and chick; organogenesis – vulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans; eye lens induction, limb development and regeneration in vertebrates; differentiation of neurons, post embryonic development-larval formation, metamorphosis; environmental regulation of normal development; sex determination.
Morphogenesis and organogenesis in plants: Organization of shoot and root apical meristem; shoot and root development; leaf development and phyllotaxy; transition to flowering, floral meristems and floral development in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum.
Programmed cell death, aging and senescence.

Second Semester

Gen C21: Cytogenetics
Chromosome structure, organization: Chromatin structure, nucleosomal and higher order structures, morphology and basic functions; Techniques in the study of chromosomes and applications. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes, banding, karyotyping, chromosome labeling and cell cycle analysis, in situ hybridization, chromosome painting, gene mapping, somatic cell hybrids, premature chromosome condensation; Special types of chromosome-sex chromosomes, sex chromatin, B-chromosome, polytene and lambrush chromosomes; Numerical and structural changes in the chromosome. Mechanisms of sex determination in plants and animals. Dosage compensation; Genome organization in viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes (animals and plants); Organization of nuclear and organellar genomes; c-value paradox; Techniques in genome analysis, genome mapping and functional genomics; Repetitive DNA-satellite DNAs and interspersed repeated DNAs, Transposable Elements, LINES, SINES, Alu family, mechanisms of DNA amplification, genome evolution; Fine structure of gene, split genes, pseudogenes, overlapping genes and multigene families. DNA and RNA as genetic material; Chemistry and structure of DNA.

Genetic Variation :
Gene Mutation and its mechanism ; Types of mutation: Forward; Reverse; Intragenic suppressor; Extragenic suppressor; point mutations; Missense; Nonsense; Somatic versus germinal mutation. Mutant types, Occurrence of mutations, Mutation detection systems, Mutation induction, Mutation and cancer, Mutagens in genetic dissection. Radiation genetics. Molecular basis of gene mutations. Repair: DNA damage repair, systems that safeguard DNA, Direct reversal repair, Excision repair, Translesion and Mismatch repair, Recombination repair, Biological repair mechanisms, Repair defects and human diseases. Mechanism of transposition in prokaryotes, molecular nature and use of transposable elements in eukaryotes. Controlling elements in maize, Drosophila P element

Genetic toxicology: Development of the topic and importance with reference to carcinogenesis. Mutagenecity, Teratogenecity, DNA damage and genome instability, Endogenous metabolism and DNA damage, Exogenous factors (irradiation and carcinogens),Toxicogenomics. Genotoxicity-classification of genotoxic agents, genotoxic test systems.

Practicals:
Use and maintenance of a light microscope; Mitotic and meiotic behaviour of plant and animal chromosomes, preparation of chromosomes from root tip cells of Aloe vera, bone marrow cells and spermatogonial cells of Mus musculus and Grass hopper. Karyotype analysis of plant , animal and human chromosomes. Micronucleus test in Allium cepa and Mus musculus; Mutagenecitytesting in tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium Chromosomal aberrations in mouse bone marrow cells and peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures, Single cell gel electrophoresis/Comet assay in Nicotiana tabaccum var.Xanthi.

Gen C22: Biostatistics
Probability and statistics; population, variables, collection, tabulation and graphical representation of data, frequency distribution, central tendency and skewness, binomial, Poisson and Gaussian distributions, additive and multiplicative laws of probability, concept and correlation; regression; methods of least squares; chi-square tests, random number generation- testing and use; probability density and cumulative distribution function; systematic and random sampling.

Gen C23: Microbial Genetics
Culture of microorganisms; Methods for isolating pure cultures; types of culture media; enrichment culture techniques; maintenance and preservation of pure cultures. Control of microorganisms; physical and chemical methods. Bacterial growth: definition, growth parameters measurement of growth synchronous growth growth kinetics factors affecting growth. Batch and continuous culture Differentiation: endospore formation – cytological physiological and genetic aspects, germination. Outlines of biosynthesis of peptidoglycan major aminoacids and proteins. Regulatory mechanisms in bacteria induction repression, feedback inhibition, catabolite repression and attenuation. Manipulation of biochemical regulatory mechanisms for over production of metabolites.
Genetic recombination in Bacteria; Identification and selection of mutants, transformation, natural transformation systems, mechanism, gene mapping by transformation; chemical-mediated and electrotransformation. Conjugation-discovery, nature of donor strains and compatibility, interrupted mating and temporal mapping, Hfr, F12 heteroduplex analysis, chromosome transfer in other bacteria, molecular pathway of recombination. Transduction:Generalized and specialized transduction; gene mapping by specialized transduction., mechanism of generalized transduction, abortive transduction.
Techniques of studying Bacteriophages-virulent phage(T4) and Temperate phage(phage lambda). Important aspects of life cycles; phage genome and gene mapping; host parasite relationship, immunity and repression; site specific recombination (lambda and PI), Transposable phage(Phage Mu), genetic organization and transposition , Mu as a genetic tool. Plasmids:Types,detection,replication,partitioning, copy-number control and transfer; properties of some known plasmids; genetic rearrangements and their evolutionary significance; Phase variation in Salmonella and others; BAC,PAC,YAC.
Aspects of Fungal genetics, Yeast genetics, Heterothallism and mating type switches, gene disruption plasmids. Genes, mutation and mutagenesis, UV and Chemical mutagens, types of mutation, Ames test for mutagenesis, method of genetic analysis, bacterial genetic system.

Practicals :
Preparation of culture media (synthetic, semisynthetic and complex): Methods of sterilization and aseptic methods; isolation of microorganisms from natural samples by dilution plating method and development of pure cultures by streak-plate and pour-plate methods. Determination of morphological (simple and differential staining) ,physiological and biochemical characteristics of some selected and isolated bacteria. Turbidimetric estimation of bacterial growth, construction of bacterial growth curve: influence of physical and chemical factors on bacterial growth. Determination of antibiotic sensitivity of some bacteria by disc diffusion method. Recombination in bacteria using auxotrophic mutants/ antibiotic- , metal resistant organism. Competent cell preparation and bacterial transformation. Extraction of plasmids cloning and expression of bacterial/ viral gene (restriction digestion, PCR, ligation etc) Isolation of bacteriophage and determination of phage-titer.

Gen C24: Developmental Genetics
Genetic control of development in animals: Genes for development in Drosophila. Maternal effect genes and zygotic genes; genetic basis of pattern formation in early development; coordinate genes; gap genes;pair-rule genes;segment polarity genes;homeotic genes; HOX genes in evolution; Genetic control of development in Higher plants: Chromosomal and genetic control of differentiation. Important differences between animal and plant development. Model plant systems; Cloning genes relevant to Plant development. Early events in embryogenesis, complexity of gene expression in the embryo;Genetics of Embryogenesis; embryo lethal mutants in Arabidopsis and Maize.Genetics of leaf and Flower development;Identification of floral homeotic genes; genes involved in flower devbelopment. Genetics of anther development and pollen formation;self incompatibility and apomixis;seed development; Developmental Genetics in Man: Fertilization and development; genetic control of X inactivation; in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer; transfer technology

Gen S21: Metabolism
Carbon cycle, bioenergetics and metabolism, the ATP cycle and glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation and regulation of ATP production, membranes –its structure and role in ATP generation oxidative degradation of fatty acids and amino acids in animal tissues correlation between carbohydrate, amino acids and fatty and degradation, Metabolism of nitrogen compounds protein turnover, metabolic regulation of enzymes, nitrogen fixation - mechanisms and control he nitrogen cycle as the source of cellular biosynthetic intermediates. Metabolic Disorders.

Gen S22: Immunology
Blood & Blood cells, Bone Marrow, Reticulo-Endothelial system & ABO Blood groups. Tissue fluid, Lymph, Lymphatics, Lymph nodes and Spleen. Cardiovascular System (Heart, ECG, Blood Pressure, Sino - Aortic mechanism, Regional & Capillary circulation. Immunoglobins, organization and expressions of Ig genes; B cell maturation, activation and differentiation; MHC/ HLA; antigen processing and presentation; T-cells, T-cell receptors, T-cell maturation, activation and differentiation; cytokines; cell mediated and humoral effector responses, auto immunity, immunodeficiency diseases, transplantation immunology, cancer and immune system. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, monoclonal antibody technique.

Practicals
Blood film preparation and identification of cells, double diffusion and Immunoelectrophoresis, Radial Immnunodiffusion, Western Blotting, ELISA, Immunodiagnostics (using commercial kits); Isolation of peritoneal mononuclear phagocytes from mice; Isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from human.

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Third Semester

Gen C 31: Regulation of Gene Expression
Prokaryotic transcription and translation controls; various protein motifs involved in DNA-protein interactions during eukaryotic transcription; chromatin remodeling; different modes of mRNA, tRNA splicing, general discussion on various snRNPs, capping, polyadenylation and other processing events in eukaryotes, RNA editing; discussion on ribozyme; RNA interference: mechanisms and enzymology; regulation of gene expression by miRNP pathway; plant-virus interactions and silencing of RNA.

Gen C32: Human Genetics and genomics
History and development of Human genetics- hereditary traits, genetics and disease; organization of the Human genome; Repetitive DNA in human genome; Methods of genetic study in man (Pedigree analysis, Chromosomal analysis; Biochemical analysis; Somatic cell genetics); Human Genome mapping; physical, genetic and microsatellite mapping; Human Genome Project; Mammalian tissue culture techniques.
Chromosomal Basis of genetic disorders: Karyotypes and identification of chromosome variation, Biochemical genetics: types and diagnosis: Metabolic disorders, inter-allelic and intra-allelic heterogeneity; defects in membrane transport (cystic fibrosis), defects in structural proteins(DMD and BMD), collagen disorders (Osteogenesis imperfecta),
Genetical factors in common diseases- congenital defects, coronary heart disease, diabetes, cancers, mental diseases, genetic counselling
Pharmacogenomics; Pharmacogenetics, genetics of globin triplet repeat disorders, cancer genetics; immunogenetics; mapping of human genome; somatic cell genetics; DNA polymorphism in mapping; structure and function; biochemical genetics; polygenic inheritance; Effects of drugs in individual and susceptibility; Acetylation polymorphisms, Succinyl choline sensitivity and G6PD deficiency.
Immunogenetics; Gene therapy methods ;ethics and control; stem cell research.
Genetic and physical maps, physical mapping and map-based cloning, choice of mapping population, simple sequence repeat loci, southern and fluorescence in situ hybridization for genome analysis, chromosome microdisection, molecular markers in genome analysis; RAPD and AFLP analysis, molecular markers linked to disease resistant genes, application of RFLP in forensic, disease prognosis, genetic counseling, pedigree, varietal etc. Genome sequencing: genome sizes, organelle genomes, genomic libraries, strategies for genome sequencing, packaging, transfection and recovery of clones, application of sequence information for identification of defective genes. Pharmacogenetics, genetics of globin triplet repeat disorders, cancer genetics; immunogenetics; mapping of human genome; somatic cell genetics; DNA polymorphism in mapping; structure and function; biochemical genetics; polygenic inheritance, Microarray.

Practical:
A) Human Cytogenetics: Understanding principles of cell culture, aseptic technique, assessing quality and quantity of metaphases, harvesting of mitotic chromosomes, estimation of mitotic index, methodologies of staining and banding in the production of various cytogenetic preparations, clinical relevance of chromosomal abnormalities (heritable / acquired), ideogram preparation, karyotype identification (from photographs) and explaining aspects of chromosome structure / behaviorcrucial for interpreting results of chromosome analysis.
B) Human Molecular Genetics:demonstrate familiarity with databases of information pertaining to genes, markers, maps and diseases such as Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and Medline; understanding the principles of designing oligonucleotide primers for PCR and utilization of relevant software; PCR applications in assigning genotypes to RFLP / VNTR sequences; screening samples for identified mutations.
C) Biochemical /Pharmacogenetics: electrophoretic screening for enzyme polymorphisms; estimation of enzyme deficiency / drug sensitivity.

Gen C33: Proteomics
Mass spectroscopy, basic principle, MALDI-TOF, ESI; 2-D Gel electrophoresis, DIGE, SELDI-TOF, PF-2D. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), basic principles, chemical shift, spin-spin interaction, NOE, 2D-NMR , NOESY,COSEY. X-ray Crystallography: Principle of X-ray diffraction, scattering vector, structure factor, phase problem, reciprocal lattice and Ewald sphere, Miller indices, Zone axes, crystal lattice, Lane Equations, Bragg’s law, special properties of protein crystals, model building, refinement and R-factor.
Practicals: Gel Filtration, Protein electrophoresis-1D+2D and protein expression analysis.

Gen C32: Summer Project
Gen S31: Evolutionary Biology and Biodiversity
Origin of cells and unicellular evolution: Origin of basic biological molecules; abiotic synthesis of organic monomers and polymers; concept of Oparin and Haldane; experiment of Miller (1953); the first cell; evolution of prokaryotes; origin of eukaryotic cells; evolution of unicellular eukaryotes; Origin of life (including aspects of periodic environment and molecular evolution);
Emergence of evolutionary thoughts: Lamarck; Darwin–concepts of variation, adaptation, struggle, fitness and natural selection; Mendelism; spontaneity of mutations; the evolutionary synthesis; concepts of evolution, The rise of organic evolution; mechanisms of speciation; Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium; genetic polymorphisms and selection;
Paleontology and evolutionary history: The evolutionary time scale; eras, periods and epoch; major events in the evolutionary time scale; origins of unicellular and multicellular organisms; major groups of plants and animals; stages in primate evolution including Homo; origin and evolution of economically important microbes; interactions between environment and biota, types of ecosystems, population ecology and biological control; community structure and organization, concept of habitat and ecological niches, limiting factor, energy flow, food chain, food web and tropic levels, ecological pyramids and recycling, biotic community- concept, structure, dominance, fluctuation and succession; ecosystem dynamics and management, stability and complexity of ecosystems, speciation and extinctions, environmental impact assessment; principles of conservation; conservation strategies; sustainable development.

Gen S32: Animal and Plant Biotechnology
Structure and organization of animal cell. Equipments and materials for animal cell culture technology; Primary and established cell line cultures; Introduction to the balanced salt solution and simple growth medium; Brief discussion on the chemical, physical and metabolic functions of different constituents of culture medium; Role of carbon dioxide; Role of serum and supplements. Serum & protein free defined media and their application; Measurement of viability and cytotoxicity; Biology and characterization of the cultured cells;, measuring parameters of growth; Basic techniques of mammalian cell culture in vitro, disaggregation of tissue  and primary culture, maintenance of cell culture; cell separation; Scaling-up of animal cell culture cell synchronization cell cloning and micromanipulation cell transformation; Application of animal cell culture; Stem cell culture embryonic stem cells and their applications; Cell culture based vaccines; Somatic cell genetics; Organ and histotypic cultures; Measurement of cell death; Apoptosis three dimensional culture; General idea on animal growth development; Mammalian (including human) reproduction endocrine control and hormone-cascade Comparison with Birds (Chicken) and Fish reproduction. General differentiation: Genesis and spermatogenesis Genes and markers associated with gametogenesis. In Vitro gamet maturation. In vitro sterilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET), Sex determination or sex specific makers, sexing of sperm and embryos, Assisted reproductive technology (ART). Animal genes and their regulation, some specific promoters for tissue specific expression. Improvements of animal/fish by biotechnology by transgenic approach with specific examples, embryo splitting and animal cloning. Genetically engineered animals for pharmacological research. Animals as bioreactors: production of IFN/TNF in milk/egg white, Developmental Biology.

Plant cell tissue and organ cultures: Introduction to cell and tissue culture techniques; totipotency; Morphogenesis in vitro; Organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis; Micropropagation and clonal propagation. Synthetic seeds; Germplasm preservation in vitro; Production of haploids and triploids (anther, microspore and endosperm culture);  Protoplast culture and somatic hybridization; nuclear and cytoplasmic hybrids. Somaclonal variation in plant cell culture and regenerated plants; Cryopreservation and germplasm conservation; Transgenic plant technology: Gene transfer(vertical) by classical methods; horizontal gene transfer; methods of genetic transformation in plants; methods of nuclear transformation; Organelle  transformation; advantages; Direct transformation of plant systems using physical methods; Agrobacterium mediated plant transformation; manipulating gene expression in plants, selectable markers and reporter genes, Agrobacterium tumefaciens; Genetic elements present on the Ti plasmid, genetic engineering of the Ti plasmid, vectors used to introduce foreign DNA into plant cells- binary cloning vector, disarmed Ti plasmid, cointegrate cloning vector; comparison of methods for transfer of DNA to plants, manipulation of gene expression in plants; production of transgenic plants without reporter or marker genes. Application of plant transformation for productivity and performance; herbicide resistance; Insect resistance; Bt genes; long shelf life of fruits and flowers; molecular farming, benefits and risks; Transgene stability and gene silencing; Strategies to avoid gene silencing and improve gene expression in transgenic plants; ethics and plant genetic engineering; metabolic engineering and industrial products; plant secondary metabolites, control mechanisms and manipulations of phenylpropanoid pathway; alkaloids etc.

Practicals:
Basic techniques in plant cell, tissue and organ culture; Excised embryo cultureOrganogenesis and somatic embryogenesis; Stages of micropropagation ; Callus and cell suspension culture; isolation and culture of protoplasts; basic techniques in genetic transformation in plants; transformation with wild type and disarmed strains of Agrobacterium.

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Fourth Semester


Gen C41: Plant Genetics and Plant Breeding
Genetic analysis and an overview of Genomics:
Overview of genetic analysis; Epistasis analysis, genetic analysis of pathways; suppressor/enhancer screens;.forward and reverse genetics; Evolution of the concept of the Gene, genetic definition of the gene; Complex gene-protein relationships. Genomics an overview; correlated genetic, cytological, physical maps of chromosomes in plants; map position based cloning of genes; RNA and protein assays of genome function; evolution of genome in cereal grasses.
Plant Breeding: Development of hybrid cultivars and molecular breeding. Evaluation of combining ability, prediction of double cross hybrid performance; production of hybrids through the use of cytoplasmic genetic male sterility systems, Classes of molecular markers, detecting DNA polymorphisms, genetics of mapping molecular loci, specialized mapping techniques. QTL, mapping QTL with molecular markers, application of markers to selection.
Transposon tagging of plant genes: McClintock and the Ac/Ds transposable elements of corn; Cloning maize Ac/Ds elements; molecular features of the maize Ac/Ds system; Transposon tagging; Cloning the Cf-9 gene of tomato by transposon tagging
Genomes and Comparative Genomics: Concept; Genome sequencing; High throughput genome sequencing; Arabidopsis, rice and human genomes; Genome annotation; Synteny; Gene search and comparison tools.Functional Genomics: Approaches to analyze differential expression of genes - ESTs, SAGE, microarrays and their applications; Principles in reverse genetics: Gene tagging; Gene trapping; Gene silencing; Knockout mutants; Transcriptome; Ribotype concept.

Practicals:
Analysis of polyploids and structural hybrids; Cytogenetic biomarkers of mutagenesis;
Analysis of genetic polymorphisms using isozymes and molecular markers; PCR based site-directed mutagenesis to demonstrate gene silencing and knockout mutation

Gen C42: Quantitative and Evolutionary  Genetics
Quantitative inheritance: traits controlled by many loci; two, three and multi-locus control; location of polygenes and significance of polygenic inheritance; QTL mapping using molecular marker, population statistics; heritability; realized heritability; partitioning of the variance; measurement of heritability; quantitative inheritance in human beings; Population Genetics: populations, gene pool, gene frequency; Hardy-Weinberg law; the Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium and mating systems; estimation of gene frequencies; causes of changes in gene frequency; concepts and rate of change in gene frequency through natural selection, artificial selection; Heritability, Quantifying heritability; proof of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; generation time; testing for fit to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; extensions of H-W equilibrium-multiple alleles, multiple loci; Non random mating- inbreeding, pedigree analysis and population analysis; migration and random genetic drift; adaptive radiation and modifications; isolating mechanisms; speciation; allopatricity and sympatricity; convergent evolution; sexual selection; co-evolution; Evolutionary forces; processes that change allelic frequencies: models for population genetics; change of gene frequency under mutation, migration and different types of selection; sampling variation of gene frequency-genetic drift and effective population size; Genetic diversity, genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis; origin and evolution of gene.; rate of molecular Evolution-amino acids and nucleotide substitutions, synonymous codon , molecular divergence and molecular clock; molecular tools in phylogeny, classification and identification; protein and nucleotide sequence analysis; origin of new genes and proteins; gene duplication and divergence.

Gen C43: Bioinformatics
Basic concepts of biological databases. Applications and Prospects ; Gene and protein sequence data banks. Access to sequence databases on the Internet; Storing sequences in Computers. sequence analysis, multiple sequence alignment, homology and analogy, pattern recognition, analysis package. Simple pattern searching in sequences.BLAST, In silico computational techniques for gene functions.

Gen S41: Review paper in Genetics
Gen S42: Seminar
Gen S43: Grand Viva


Faculty Members

The course is interdepartmental and is taught by faculties from different departments of the University as well by Scientists from different Research Institutes.

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT
Prof. Anita Mukherjee

EMERITUS SCIENTISTS, UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA

Professor A.K.Sharma
Professor Sumitra Sen

CAS, Department of Botany, CU

Prof. Sumita Jha
Prof. Anita Mukherjee
Dr. S. Mukhopadhyay
Dr. Karabi Datta
Dr. B. Chaubey
Dr. Moumita Bandyopadhay
Dr. S. Ray

Department of Zoology, CU

Prof. R. N. Chatterjee
Dr. Urmi Chatterji

Department of Biochemistry, CU

Prof. D. J. Chatterjee
Dr. A. Sidhanta
Dr. Sanjay Ghosh

Department of Statistics, CU

Prof. Kalyan Das
Prof. Uttam Bandyopadhyay
Prof. G. Chattopadhyay

Department of Biotechnology, CU

Dr. K. Panda
Dr. G. Chakraborty

Dr. R. Banerjee
Dr. Anindita Seal

Department of Microbiology, CU

Dr. Sagarmoy Ghosh
Dr. Alok Sil

S.N. Pradhan Institute of Neurosciences, CU

Prof. Jharna Roy

Department of Environmental Sciences, CU

Dr. A. Mukherjee
Dr. P. Choudhuri

Department of Physiology, CU

Dr. Sreya Chatterjee

GUEST FACULTY TEACHERS FROM RESEARCH INSTITUTES
Dr. Kunal Ray, Human Genetics and Genomics Division, IICB, Kolkata
Dr. Chitra Dutta, Human Genetics and Genomics Division IICB, Kolkata
Dr. K. NandaGopal,Scientist, Manovikas Biomedical Research and Diagnostics Center.,Kolkata.
Prof.Sampa Das , Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata
Prof. Amita Pal, Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata
Dr. P. Saha, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata
Dr. D. Mukherjee, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics , Kolkata

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Students’ Performance

Batch-Intake

Academic Session

NET/GATE Qualified

Awards/Honours

I-12

2002-2004

9

Ms. Srirupa Das-
Recipient of Dr. J. Mandal Award -2004 of University of Calcutta

II-14

2003-2005

9

Ms. Triparna  Sen
(IInd Year student) was awarded ISCA Young Scientist Award  2005(on Summer project work)

Ms. Triparna  Sen - Recipient of  Dr. J. Mandal Award -2005 of University of Calcutta

Ms. Damayanti Das awarded the Young Investigator Award (First Prize) in the International Symposium on Human Papillomavirus-Associated Cancers held at Rajiv Gandhi Centree for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, India on 1-3 November, 2008

III-12

2004-2006

8

Sunny Das- Recipient of  Dr. J. Mandal Award -2006 of University of Calcutta

IV-13

2005-2007

9

Poulami Rudra- Recipient of  Dr. J. Mandal Award -2007 of University of Calcutta

V-13

2006-2008

10

Dr. Abhishek Bhattacharya-Recipient of  Dr. J. Mandal Award -2005 of University of Calcutta

VI-12

2007-2009

7

Ms. Eisha Shaw and Ms. Subhamita Sarkar selected for PhD programme at IISc Bangalore

Ongoing Projects

Name of PI

Title of the Project

Funding Agency

Duration

Dr. Binay Chaubey

Inhibition of Hepatitis C virus through lentiviral mediated delivery of multiple siRNAs

DBT

2009-2011

Mitochondrial dysfunction in response to HIV infection and antiretroviral drug treatment

DBT

2009-2011

Manpower involved in Research

CSIR/UGC-JRF NET fellows:

1. Avisek Basu (CSIR-SRF) Supervisor-Prof A.Mukherjee
2. Bipradut Sil(CSIR-JRF) Supervisor- Prof S.Jha
3. Pijush Pal(UGC-JRF) Supervisor- Prof S.Jha

University Research Fellows:

1 .Ms.Suranjana Ray (Supervisor Dr Sandip Mukhopadhyay)
2. Ms.Amrita Basu ( Supervisor Prof S.Jha,
    Joint Supervisor Prof Anjan Dasgupta
    Associate Supervisor: Prof. K. Chakraborty

Facilities Available

Library :

• More than 1000 text-books available for students’ use.
• Almost all research journals available through University subscription

Important Achievement

The Nucleus, an international journal on Cytology and allied topics, was inaugurated in 1958, at the International Congress of Genetics in Montreal, in which Dr. GH Taylor, Dr. HK Riley, Dr. BP Kauffmann, etc., participated as members of the Advisory Board. Till today, it is being edited by Prof. AK Sharma and Late Prof. Archana Sharma, with the full assistance from senior scientists, all of whom being alumni of this University. The Nucleus is running at present in its 52nd year. Eminent scientists like Prof. CD Darlington, Prof. H. Kihara, Prof. JW Boyce have all been members of the Advisory Board. The present scientific board also consists of scientists of international repute. The publication responsibility has recently been taken over by Springer-Verlag, the International publishing house from Germany.

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